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Research Paper

Ayanna Kindell

Immunodeficiency. 

The line of approach I want to take will be to have my readers fully understand what HIV is and how it impacts the body within a duration span of infection. The human immunodeficiency virus is grouped to the lentivirus genus, which is in the family of retroviridae. There are two types of HIV, which are classified as HIV-1and HIV-2. 

Those who are HIV positive find out when they are tested by a doctor when they explain their symptoms. HIV destroys a part of the immune system. It specifically affects a certain type of white blood cells called the T lymphocyte or the T cell. it does not destroy the T cell, but more so invades the T cell so the cell will act the way the virus wanted to act. 

I currently have about three paragraphs which describe how this virus affects a person‘s body. They also describe where the virus comes from and how it came to be a global issue. Lastly, they describe how future treatments are done. 

When first infected, antibodies are made in order to defend the body against the newly entered virus. The antibodies attack and attach to the Invaders, those Invaders would be viruses and bacteria and once they are attached to the antibodies they are months to be destroyed. Having an  immunodeficiency causes a person’s B cell to produce fewer antibodies which leaves that person less protected against the infectious virus and diseases. 

There are two different kinds of immunodeficiency that can affect a person. They are called primary immunodeficiency and secondary immunodeficiency. Primary immunodeficiency disorders are immune disorders that people are born with such as  Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Which increases one’s chance of getting cancer. Secondary immunodeficiency diseases are when outside infections attack the body. The most dangerous one would be HIV. 

Those who have the HIV immunodeficiency virus Have the virus in their blood, that interns destroys part of the immune system.It affects the white blood cell called the T lymphocyte, or the T cells. These T cells are called The Fighter cells in the blood, because it helps the body fight off  germs and diseases. HIV destroys part of the immune system.  Once entered, it attaches itself to a T cell and works its way into completely taken over, the T-cell and uses the cell as a cloning Factory to make copies of itself. If I was spending time, does he sound like he is going to fax and destroy the completely healthy surrounding T-cells  to exponentially grow within the person’s body. The now infected T cells cannot properly fight against infections. 

Someone who is hiv-positive will have the virus in them but may not see any effects until years later. It could take years for the virus to damage the T cells to the point where the individual develops AIDS. The person may feel fine or even experienced light symptoms but the virus will be replicating itself  within that person’s body all while destroying the existing T cells. Eventually this progresses to the immune system being severely weakened and no longer being able to fight infections. At this point the person is extremely sick. The doctor will diagnose them with AIDS if their T cell count is low or if they show signs of an extreme infection due to the immunodeficiency.

HIV leads to AIDS when a person’s T-cell count gets too low in the immune system and is weakened so many different diseases or infections develop within the person. That is AIDS.  A healthy person has CD4 helper lymphocyte cells. These cells are a type of white blood cells that combat infection. These cells are made in the spleen, thymus gland and lymph nodes.CD4 cells move through the body, which helps identify and Destroy germs in a body that hurt us. 

They fight infections by acting as Messengers 2 the other immune system cells, and tell them that they have to start fighting against the invading bacteria. HIV attaches to the cells, and infects the cells to use them as a factory to multiply. Once the cell is infected, the body starts to lose the ability to fight off infections. And once the T-cell count is too low they are in the stage of AIDS.

People who have AIDS are not able to fight off many infections due to their compromised immune system. They are more likely to get infections such as tuberculosis, in rare cases of pneumonia. They tend to also get sicker and sicker especially if they are not taking the proper antiviral medication. Lastly, they are very susceptible to developing cancer. 1 for a cancer that happens due to the HIV virus is called the kaposi sarcoma. The cancer starts when the cells in the body begin to grow uncontrollably. Adjacent cells Are at high risk of becoming part of the cancer if they spread to other parts of the body. KS is a form of skin cancer where the tumors form in the skin mucous membranes, lymph nodes and other organs.  The Afflicted cells forum red purple or brown blotches on the skin. Those blotches can be tumors as well. And they are called lesions. These lesions mostly appear on the legs or face. These lesions can become life-threatening when they are located in the lungs,  digestive tract or the liver. There are different types of chaos. The most common type in the u.s. is epidemic or Eads related KS. But there is also endemic and classic KS. This type of KS develops in people who suffer from HIV. When someone has KS then they automatically have AIDS. Chaos is caused by the virus  called the kaposi sarcoma associated with the herpes virus. For sure it is kshv. This is also known as the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)The only way to cure KS is to cure HIV. 

Approximately 37.9 million people have HIV around the world. According to the CDC, more than 1.1 million people are living with HIV and 15.8% of those are unaware that they have the virus. There are currently 40 medications that have been approved in the United States to treat the HIV infection. They are antivirals, vaccines, and sell / Gene Therapies. These medications have made the HIV infection manageable and help prolong the lives of the infected people And not make HIV a death sentence. However the ultimate goal is to completely rid the world of the virus. There are currently medicines and vaccines that are in the clinical trial stage or awaiting review by the US Food and Drug Administration.

South Africa has the highest rate  of HIV AIDS in the world. Around 7.7 million people are living with HIV in South Africa which makes southern Africa accountable for one-third of all of the new HIV infections. HIV prevalence rates are at 20.4% and are even higher among men who have sex with men, transgender women, sex workers, and drug users.  They have the largest antiretroviral treatment program. This program has helped them reach their 90 90 90 targets. That means that 90% of people living with HIV in South Africa are aware of their status. 68% of the people were on treatment.  of those who are diagnosed and we’re on the proper treatment, 87% of them were virally suppressed.  These numbers mean that approximately one in five people are living with the immunodeficiency disorder. Proper measures have been made to help people prevent themselves from getting the disease such as having South Africa being the first country to  fully approve the medication PrEP. 

HIV has had a huge social impact on sub-Saharan Africa.Many people have migrated from their homes because of the lack of clinics being able to be treated in certain areas. They are not as prevalent in certain villages, but have many clinics in population dense cities.  With more people moving out of rural areas, the clinics have less of an incentive to open a new center in these villages. Likewise, studies show that migration patterns of hiv-infected individuals return to their home villages to be closer to relatives so they can provide care for them. HIV AIDS has also stunted their population growth.  a report produced by the US Census in 2004 indicated that a lot of sub-Saharan countries are expected to experience a large decline in life expectancy. They reported that by  2010 life expectancy will drop to nearly 30 years of age. To continue, approximately 60% of hiv-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are female. These numbers are disproportionate because in the United States females only account for 25% of the diagnosis. This along with other factors would lead to there being a gender imbalance and having males between the ages of 15 and 44 outnumbering their female counterparts.

One preventative measure has been providing adequate and disease-free blood to South Africans. The blood is provided by the South African National Blood Service in the western Province blood transfusion service. With their help in 2008 no cases of transfusion transmit HIV infection to report it in southern Africa. They have made a youth prevention team that teaches life skills, reduce the stigma, and Vince conversations about HIV.  another option is counseling and testing. This is vital to preventing any new infections. They also help develop strategies to prevent the spread of HIV  in high-risk populations such as  rural areas, workers, women and the youth. Lastly they promote behavioral changes to avert HIV infections. 

 A new class of medication has been made with the intentions to protect cells from the HIV infection by stopping the virus from attaching new cells or even breaking through the cell membrane. These are called attachment inhibitors.  one of these attachment Inhibitors attaches to gp120 Which is a part of the virus and stops the entry of the virus into the cells. best blocks any interaction between the gp12- part of the cell and the cell receptors. Gp120 Is a sugar protein that extends from the HIV virus to the sugar protein in the human cells. Another form of medication is called Gene modification. CCR5  Is a co-receptor  on the surface of cells that allows the virus to infect T cells. And without this it is more difficult For HIV to enter in effect the T cells thus making the cells resistant to HIV. Oneself therapy that is curly and clinical trials is used to modify the DNA sequence and coding in the ccr5. The cells are extracted, modified and then reinserted into the patient with the goal of providing the patient with a new population of cells that will be able to fight the HIV virus as well as other possible infections got HIV infected people often face. 

Although there are many treatments that have been found to treat HIV and prolong a person’s life, people are still succumbing to this illness because of their lack of knowledge  on this topic, or not being able to afford the very expensive medication. For a single HIV / AIDS medication  “The average cost of HIV treatment is $14,000 to $20,000 a year,” says Michael Kolber, MD, a professor of medicine and director of the Comprehensive AIDS Program and Adult HIV Services at University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida. “If you’re paying $1,000 a month, you’re doing really well.” 

Some of these infections are preventable, such as HIV through unprotected sex, or sharing contaminated needles to  inject recreational drugs.  a person should regularly check up  with their personal care provider to test for immunodeficiency disorders. Not just for HIV but pneumonia, tuberculosis, diabetes and many more illnesses under this category.

Works Cited

 Blut, Arbeitskreis. “Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).” Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy : Offizielles Organ Der Deutschen Gesellschaft Fur Transfusionsmedizin Und Immunhamatologie, S. Karger GmbH, May 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4924471/.

Faust, Lena, and Sanni Yaya. “The Effect of HIV Educational Interventions on HIV-Related Knowledge, Condom Use, and HIV Incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” BMC Public Health, BioMed Central, 13 Nov. 2018, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234686/.

“Kaposi’s Sarcoma.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 1 May 2020, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaposi’s_sarcoma.

Oramasionwu, Christine, et al. “The Environmental and Social Influences of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: a Focus on Rural Communities.” Avert, 15 Apr. 2020, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21845169.

Vann, ByMadeline R., et al. “Can You Afford Your HIV Treatment? – HIV Center.” EverydayHealth.com, www.everydayhealth.com/hiv-aids/can-you-afford-hiv-treatment.aspx.

VRIES, ANNELOU, and PEGGY COHEN-KETTENIS. “Clinical Management of Gender Dysphoria in Children and Adolescents: The Dutch Approach.” Journal of Homosexuality, 28 Mar. 2012, www.hbrs.no/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Clinical-Management-of-Gender-Dysphoria-in-Children-and-Adolescents-The-Dutch-Approach.pdf.

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